Islam gained its first foothold in continental Europe from 711 onward, with the Umayyad conquest of Hispania.
Parts of Europe that Muslim states have ruled for more than one hundred years, from 711 to today
Today, the Muslim-majority regions of Europe are Turkey, Kosovo and Albania, and a plurality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, parts of Macedonia and Montenegro, as well as some Russian regions in Northern Caucasus and the Volga region (Tatarstan).
Islam in Europe by percentage of country population
<1% (Andorra, Armenia, Belarus, Czechia, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia)
1%-2% (Croatia, Ireland, Ukraine)
2%-4% (Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain)
4%-5% (Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom)
5%-10% (Austria, Bulgaria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Liechtenstein, Netherlands)
10%-20% (Georgia, Montenegro, Russia)
40%-50% (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
>95% (Turkey, Northern Cyprus, Azerbaijan)