The human impact on the Great Lakes

The human impact on the Great Lakes

Chris Brackley via

Cumulative stress is the weighted sum of 34 environmental stressors.

Environmental stressor groups:
– Toxic point source pollutants and contaminated sediments
– Invasive species
– Nonpoint pollutants (including agricultural, forestry, and urban sources)
– Altered water level fluxes (often as climate change impact)
– Climate change
– Shoreline hardening and alterations, aquatic habitat alterations
– Coastal/urban development
– Natural resource use (including water withdrawals)
– Nuisance algae (harmful algal blooms, Cladophora)
– Dams and barriers

Allan JD, McIntyre PB, Smith SDP, et al. 2013. Joint analysis of stressors and ecosystem services to enhance restoration effectiveness. P Natl Acad Sci USA 110: 372–77.

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