The human impact on the Great Lakes

The human impact on the Great Lakes

Chris Brackley via canadiangeographic.ca

Cumulative stress is the weighted sum of 34 environmental stressors.

Environmental stressor groups:
– Toxic point source pollutants and contaminated sediments
– Invasive species
– Nonpoint pollutants (including agricultural, forestry, and urban sources)
– Altered water level fluxes (often as climate change impact)
– Climate change
– Shoreline hardening and alterations, aquatic habitat alterations
– Coastal/urban development
– Natural resource use (including water withdrawals)
– Nuisance algae (harmful algal blooms, Cladophora)
– Dams and barriers

Allan JD, McIntyre PB, Smith SDP, et al. 2013. Joint analysis of stressors and ecosystem services to enhance restoration effectiveness. P Natl Acad Sci USA 110: 372–77.

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